The first physician documented by Avesta texts was
Vivangahan. Other notable physicians mentioned were Mani, Roozbeh, and
credit for the establishment of hospital & training system must be given to
the ancient Persians.
Jundishapur (Gundeshapur) is particularly thought to have had a significant
role in establishing the institution of the teaching hospital for the first
According to the certified records of history, by the decree of Sassanid king,
Jundishapur International University founded in 271 AD due to methodically cure
and treat diseases while simultaneously train the students of medicine.
International University as an outstanding center of learning and study in the
field of medicine, philosophy, theology, and science was a gathering place of
noted and renowned ancient scholars and physicians from across the globe.
According to the Cambridge History of Iran, Jundishapur University was the most
important medical center of the ancient world (defined as Europe, the
Mediterranean, and the Near East) during the 6 and 7
library of the University known as the "City of Hippocrates"
consisted of eight floors and 259 halls including an estimated 400,000 books.
Jundishapur medical students who practiced on patients under the supervision of
renowned medical scholars & physicians had to pass special examination due
to obtain license to practice.
scholars and graduates were appointed to important governmental positions. The
Minister of Health (Iran Dorostbod) was chosen from the physicians and the
Minister of Education (Iran Farhangbod) was an accomplished scholar of
philosophy, logic, mathematics or psychology.
regarding the historical records, the world's first medical conference was held
upon Sassanid King's order in Ctesiphon in which hundreds of mobeds and
physicians from Persia and other countries attended this congress; a historical
event that Ferdowsi versified in eternal epic Shahnameh.
the torchbearers of ancient Persia's scientific heritage are Muhammad ibn Zakarya
Razi (known in west as Rhazes or Rasis), Abu Nasr Farabi (known in west as
Alpharabius) and Ibn-Sina (know in west as Avicenna) whose discoveries tangibly
have improved human health.
Muhammad ibn Zakarya Razi was a Persian
polymath, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher and important figure in
the history of medicine.
A comprehensive thinker, Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to
various fields of science and is particularly remembered for numerous advances
in medicine through his observations and discoveries. An early proponent of
experimental medicine, he became a successful doctor; he was appointed a court
physician, and served as chief physician of Baghdad and Rey hospitals. He was
among the first to use humorism to distinguish one contagious disease from
another and has been described as the father of pediatrics and a pioneer of
He is well known as the discoverer of alcohol and vitriol (sulfuric acid) as
Farabi is noted for his contributions to
Farabi's Social Psychology and Model City were the first treatises to deal with
He stated that:" An isolated individual could not achieve all the
perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals."
Avicenna known as Prince of Physicians in west
and chief master of all sciences in Muslim world is the celebrated Iranian
physician and philosopher who was particularly noted for his contributions in
the field of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. He composed the Canon of
Medicine that became the preeminent source of medicine among western medical
scholars from the early 14 to the mid-16 century.
Dr. Shima Naghavi, Director of International